Literature Review on Bread Staling and Storage Conditions
Cardiff Metropolitan University
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Bread is a very important and highly consumed food, with a huge market worldwide. It can be produced and modified into various kinds of form and texture to suit the market preferences. Its primary ingredients include flour, water and salt. White bread, brown bread and wholemeal bread are made from flours produced from different stages of milling. Depending on the degree of milling, it will affect the nutritional content as well as flavour of the bread. White breads produced from white flour compared to wholemeal breads, has a lesser fibre content as the bran and germ removed during the milling process. Brown breads can simply be produced by using brown flour which is extracted from the wheat at a rate of between 70% to 100% (Edwards, 2007). This will retain some of the nutritional content from the wholemeal flour but also removes some of the flavour and texture which is not favoured by some individuals. However, manufacturers can also enhance the nutritional value of their bread by adding different kinds vitamins and minerals into the recipe. The importance of bread in the individual’s diet reflects on the importance of proper bread storage. Freshly baked bread in ambient storage have a shelf life of around less than a week before changes in texture and flavour occurs (Brown, 2014). This process of texture and flavour deterioration can be referred as bread staling. The rate of staling can be affected by many factors during pre-bake, baking and post-bake. Examples of these factors include the type and quality of flour used, the method of mixing, the ingredients used for the dough, proofing time and conditions, and any type of heat treatment (Chinachoti and Vodovotz, 2000). Storing the bread in different storage conditions may also affect the rate of staling. There 3 main types of conventional storage: ambient (25°C), chilled (5°C) and frozen (-18°C). By investigating the rate of staling of bread in conventional storage conditions over time, it may be possible to determine an ideal way of storage for bread to preserve its freshness as much as possible. This can have many benefits to the general public especially bread manufacturers and their customers. This includes reducing the economic losses and wastes disposal generated from expired bread and their packaging. Food waste generation is a heavily discussed topic. According to the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO, 2016), a third of the global food produced for human consumption is wasted per year, which is about 1.3 billion tons. Around 7 million tons of this food waste is generated in the UK (FSA, 2016), where most of it could have be avoided in the first place. These wastes not only represent economic losses, but also represent an impact to the environment such as the emission of greenhouse gases (FAO, 2016). Among these wastes, it includes the packaging waste that comes with the food product, which also contributes to filling up the landfills and producing greenhouse gases. Overall, this highlights the importance in preserving the freshness of bread to avoid wastage.
BSc (Hons) Food Science and Technology
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