Analysing sugar, pH, antioxidant activity and vitamin C content of orange juices and squashes.
Cardiff Metropolitan University
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper was to determine the sugar, pH, antioxidant activity and vitamin C content of a range of orange juice and squash concentrates, including value to premium brands popular within the UK. In addition, the aim was to determine the nutritional difference between value and premium ranges beverages and whether deterioration occurs during storage. Design/Methodology/Approach – A Brix test was applied for the analysis of sugar using a refractometer and a pH meter was used for the simple and reliable determination of the pH value for all brands. The antioxidant activity was analysed by a spectrophotometer using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; DPPH radical scavenging assay and a redox iodine titration method was applied to determine the vitamin C content. Five orange juice samples and five orange squash samples were selected ranging from a value to premium brand product. The squash samples were diluted to the manufacturer’s recommendation of 1:4 squash to water atio. Repeated measure ANOVA and paired-sample t tests were completed for statistical analysis. Findings – All juice samples obtained an average result of 10°Brix and squash samples indicated low °Brix results. The results of the Brix test and pH test demonstrated no changes during storage, stable however, all were highly acidic particularly the squash concentrates. Fluctuations of antioxidant activity were shown in majority of the beverages theoretically due to polymerisation. Significant difference appeared in the value to premium ranged orange juices (p≤0.05). Ascorbic acid degradation occurred in all juice samples other than squash samples. Research limitations/implications – Findings of the study demonstrate the consumption of squash concentrates could be a healthier alternative to fruit juice if it were to be supplemented with antioxidants including vitamin C, providing a future market. Originality/value – The paper provides information on the analysis of squash concentrates where no research has been reported and compared to with orange juice. It may be useful for dental researchers to further investigate and examine the detrimental effects of the low pH of squash.
BSc (Hons) Food Science and Technology
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