Negative Schizotypy and Feedback Related Negativity: An ERP Study
Osman, Sagal Mohamoud
Cardiff Metropolitan University
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Research has suggested motivational deficits in the reward system (e.g. Gold et al., 2008), which have also been said to be related to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia (Der-Avakian & Markou, 2012). Yet, studies examining the relationship between feedback-related negativity (FRN) and schizotypal-traits have been very sparse. Therefore, this present undertook a multidimensional approach, as well as conducted a mixed research design, to examine the effect of negative schizotypy on FRN in a reward-processing task. To examine this, a sample of 21 undergraduate students were defined into high and low negative schizotypal groups, and high and low depressive groups. The Oxford-Liverpool inventory of feelings and experiences (O-LIFE: Mason & Claridge, 2006) was used to determine schizotypal levels and the Beck’s Depression inventory (BDI-II: Beck, Steer & Brown, 1996) was used to measure the symptoms of depression. Participants were asked to do the same pseudo-reinforcement learning task used by Holroyd et al (2003), in order to see if those with high negative-schizotypal traits elicit smaller FRN amplitudes than those with low negative-schizotypal traits. Similarly, it was also predicted that those depressed would also exhibit a smaller FRN than those who scored low in the BDI-II. Findings included: high negative-schizotypal group did not generate a smaller FRN than the low group, mean FRN for participants was higher for unexpected conditions than expected conditions, and high-depression group does not have smaller FRN for expected outcomes than unexpected outcomes. Both practical and theoretical Implications have been highlighted and discussed – such as the lack of control for blinks and saccades and the use of a non-clinical sample to conduct schizophrenic-related investigations. It was concluded that extensive amounts of research needed to be carried out, as current findings have indicated that individuals with schizophrenia and depression, may process reward-related information differently.
BSc (Hons) Psychology
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