Validation of PWV by The Sphygmocor® and CAVI by the VaSera® on measuring Arterial Stiffness
Jones, Kirsty Marie
Cardiff Metropolitan University
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Background. Non-invasive devices for measuring arterial stiffness are being used more frequently in predicting risk of cardiovascular disease. Two devices of interest within this study are The Sphygmocor® 2000 (AtCor Medical, Sydney, Australia) and VaSera® VS-1000 (Fukuda Denshi, Tokyo, Japan). The Sphygmocor is recognised as the gold standard measuring PWV m/s (pulse wave velocity), however the VaSera is independent of blood pressure and measures the CAVI (cardio-ankle vascular index). This study investigated the validation of both devices, and whether the CAVI is comparable to the Sphygmocor. Method. 39 volunteers aged 19-90 years were invited to either Taunton Leisure Centre or Cardiff Metropolitan University Physiology Laboratory for detailed assessments where their height, weight and date of birth were taken. Every individual completed a lifestyle questionnaire. All then individually had their arterial stiffness measured firstly by the Sphygmocor tonometry device. During this measurement both ECG and brachial blood pressure were recorded. Both sites of measurement (femoral and carotid) are located and marked with a small felt pen. A tape measure is used to measure the distance from the sternal notch to the femoral, and then again from the notch to the carotid. The tonometer is then placed on both locations and records the pulse wave. Once both sets of recordings have been taken, the length of the sternal notch to the carotid is subtracted from the length of the femoral measurement. The PWV is then calculated from the difference in time travel of pulse waves at both locations, divided by the transport distance, after a short rest the CAVI measurements were recorded. The participant’s age, height and weight data was inputted into the device, and then they were connected. Blood pressure cuffs are secured abound both brachial, another two around the ankles, ECG electrodes are then clipped around both wrists and a PCG microphone attached to the sternum second intercostal space. Once everything was in place the measurements were undertaken. The cuffs inflated on the left brachial and ankle simultaneously, and then again on the opposite side once the left side was deflated. The VaSera system produces two CAVI measurements, R-CAVI (right) and L-CAVI (left). Results. Independent t-test determined no significant difference between both devices with p= 0.107. A positive correlation was observed between the Sphygmocor’s aPWV m/s and CAVI. Pearson correlation analysis determined p = <0.001 and r = 0.827. Bland – Altman plot displays the spread of data in-between two standard deviations. Within the younger participants the data tends to favour the CAVI, however, the data of older participants favours the Sphygmocor on the graph. Conclusion. The CAVI device correlates strongly to the gold standard Sphygmocor. Therefore clinicians and scientists could also use the CAVI as a measure of arterial stiffness for predicting cardiovascular disease later in life.
BSc (Hons) Biomedical Sciences (Health, Excercise and Nutrition)
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