Observation as a method to enhance collective efficacy: An integrative review
Bruton, Adam M.
Mellalieu, Stephen D.
Shearer, David A.
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Objectives This review provides an integrative argument for the use of observation as an intervention to manipulate individual collective efficacy beliefs in sports teams. Design An exploration of the conceptual and empirical evidence underpinning observation-based interventions for increasing collective efficacy. Method A presentation of reflections on the following. First, we reflect on existing techniques used to increase self- and collective efficacy beliefs. Second, we consider collective efficacy in the context of observational learning and the various modeling techniques employed in the sports and motor performance literature. Third, we highlight relevant literature from neuroscience, outlining the analogous neural pathways evident for social cognition (i.e., collective efficacy) and observation. Results This review presents a case for the use of observation interventions to manipulate collective efficacy, drawing upon social psychological frameworks of human behavior, the observation-based literature, and contemporary understanding of brain and behavior. Conclusions Observation-based interventions are suited for collective efficacy manipulation in sport. There is a need to advance understanding of this relationship in order to maximize improvements in collective efficacy across group contexts.
Psychology of Sport and Exercise;
Bruton, A.M., Mellalieu, S.D. and Shearer, D.A. (2016) 'Observation as a method to enhance collective efficacy: An integrative review', Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 24, pp.1-8.
This article was published in Psychology of Sport and Exercise on 7 January 2016 (online), available at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2016.01.002
Cardiff Metropolitan University (Grant ID: Cardiff Metropolian (Internal))
- Sport Research Groups 
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