Left and right ventricular longitudinal strain-volume/area relationships in elite athletes
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We propose a novel ultrasound approach with the primary aim of establishing the temporal relationship of structure and function in athletes of varying sporting demographics. 92 male athletes were studied [Group IA, (low static–low dynamic) (n = 20); Group IC, (low static–high dynamic) (n = 25); Group IIIA, (high static–low dynamic) (n = 21); Group IIIC, (high static–high dynamic) (n = 26)]. Conventional echocardiography of both the left ventricles (LV) and right ventricles (RV) was undertaken. An assessment of simultaneous longitudinal strain and LV volume/RV area was provided. Data was presented as derived strain for % end diastolic volume/area. Athletes in group IC and IIIC had larger LV end diastolic volumes compared to athletes in groups IA and IIIA (50 ± 6 and 54 ± 8 ml/(m2)1.5 versus 42 ± 7 and 43 ± 2 ml/(m2)1.5 respectively). Group IIIC also had significantly larger mean wall thickness (MWT) compared to all groups. Athletes from group IIIC required greater longitudinal strain for any given % volume which correlated to MWT (r = 0.4, p < 0.0001). Findings were similar in the RV with the exception that group IIIC athletes required lower strain for any given % area. There are physiological differences between athletes with the largest LV and RV in athletes from group IIIC. These athletes also have greater resting longitudinal contribution to volume change in the LV which, in part, is related to an increased wall thickness. A lower longitudinal contribution to area change in the RV is also apparent in these athletes.
The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging;
- Sport Research Groups 
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