Left ventricular twist mechanics in the context of normal physiology and cardiovascular disease: a review of studies using speckle tracking echocardiography
Stöhr, Eric J.
American Physiological Society
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The anatomy of the adult human left ventricle (LV) is the result of its complex interaction with its environment. From the fetal to the neonatal to the adult form, the human LV undergoes an anatomical transformation that finally results in the most complex of the four cardiac chambers. In its adult form, the human LV consists of two muscular helixes that surround the midventricular circumferential layer of muscle fibers. Contraction of these endocardial and epicardial helixes results in a twisting motion that is thought to minimize the transmural stress of the LV muscle. In the healthy myocardium, the LV twist response to stimuli that alter preload, afterload, or contractility has been described and is deemed relatively consistent and predictable. Conversely, the LV twist response in patient populations appears to be a little more variable and less predictable, yet it has revealed important insight into the effect of cardiovascular disease on LV mechanical function. This review discusses important methodological aspects of assessing LV twist and evaluates the LV twist responses to the main physiological and pathophysiological states. It is concluded that correct assessment of LV twist mechanics holds significant potential to advance our understanding of LV function in human health and cardiovascular disease.
American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology;
Stöhr, E.J., Shave, R.E., Baggish, A.L. and Weiner, R.B. (2016) 'Left ventricular twist mechanics in the context of normal physiology and cardiovascular disease: a review of studies using speckle tracking echocardiography', American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 311(3), pp.H633-H644.
Article published in American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology available at https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00104.2016
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Cooke, Samuel (2016-03-16)Introduction: Left ventricular (LV) twist and untwisting rate (LV twist mechanics) play a crucial role during myocardial deformation. It is suggested that exercise training alters resting LV twist mechanics. However, it ...
The effects of exercise intensity vs. metabolic state on the variability and magnitude of left ventricular twist mechanics during exercise Armstrong, Craig; Samuel, Jake; Yarlett, Andrew; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Stembridge, Mike; Stöhr, Eric J. (Public Library of Science, 2016-04-21)Increased left ventricular (LV) twist and untwisting rate (LV twist mechanics) are essential responses of the heart to exercise. However, previously a large variability in LV twist mechanics during exercise has been observed, ...
Samuel, Thomas (Cardiff Metropolitan University, 2014)LV twist and skeletal muscle oxygen saturations are known to change immediately with the onset of exercise. Previous literature has suggested that LV twist increases and muscle oxygenation decreases with exercise compared ...