Gene Expression: Analysis of Corresponding Polymorphisms of the Ace and Actn3 Genes in Adolescent Rugby Union and Association Football Players
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Aim: The purpose of the present study was to analyse and quantify the magnitude of the corresponding polymorphisms of the ACE and ACTN3 genes in Rugby Union (RU) and Association Football (AF) players. Materials and Methods: A total of 71 players were involved, 33 RU players and 38 AF players. Players were analysed on the basis of genotype, polymorphism and playing position. Estimated maximal oxygen uptake was obtained from the 20 metre shuttle-run test. Stature and body mas were measured to the nearest 0.1 cm and 0.1 kg respectively. Statistical analyses were carried out using Pearson’s χ2, ANOVA, independent t-tests, coefficients of correlation, effect sizes and 95% confident intervals. Results: Mean values were significantly different between RU and AF players in body mass (87.34 vs 72.27 kg, p = 0.0001) and estimated maximal oxygen uptake (60.92 vs 53.57 ml. /kg/min-1, p = 0.015). Genotype frequencies between ACE and ACTN3 genes in both RU and AF players were not significant (p > 0.05), although allele frequencies were evident in both genes (p = 0.05 and p = 0.01 respectively). RU forwards were heavier than backs (92.79 vs 79.04 kg, p = 0.01), but estimated maximal oxygen uptake was greater in backs than forwards (52.76 vs 49.55 ml/kg/min p = 0.039). In AF players goal-keepers and defenders had greater stature than midfield players (181.03 vs 175.76 cm, p = 0.016). The effect size of AF players was relatively low in all polymorphisms: II vs XX (r = 0.03), ID vs RX (r = 0.13), DD vs RR (r = 0.13) respectively. In RU players II vs XX (endurance) and DD vs RR (power) had medium effect sizes of 0.29 and 0.24 respectively. Conclusion: The analyses did not identify exceptional differences between corresponding polymorphisms of the ACE and ACTN3 genes. Given these circumstances a dominant solution would be for a functional adaptation of ‘gene expression’ to be facilitated where appropriate. Training sessions should be designed to identify the physiological and metabolic characteristics of match-play and the demands of training and conditioning.
Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology;
Bell, W., Colley, J.P., Cooper, S.M. and Cobner, D.M (2017) 'Gene Expression: Analysis of Corresponding Polymorphisms of the Ace and Actn3 Genes in Adolescent Rugby Union and Association Football Players', Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, 1(5), pp.150-161
Article published in Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology (open access) available at https://scientiaricerca.com/srortr/SRORTR-01-000027.php
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